Immunotherapy has come to play an increasingly important role in cancer treatment. Accordingly, immune-related adverse events (irAEs) have drawn considerable attention. In this case, a young female patient developed immune-related toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN).
The same irAEs have been rarely reported in previous studies. In this study, we describe the treatment and care methods used in this case in detail in order to provide a reference for clinical practice.
After being diagnosed with TEN, the patient accepted systemic glucocorticoid therapy, timely care of skin and mucous membranes, nutrition support, antiacid therapy, anti-inflammatory, analgesics and other supportive measures.
Branched-chain amino acids and specifically leucine stimulate protein synthesis and may overcome an anabolic resistance in malnourished and cachectic cancer patients. Therefore, we hypothesized that the addition of a leucine-rich supplement to a multimodal therapy improves physical function in advanced cancer patients.This single center, randomized trial examined a multimodal therapy over 12 weeks in patients with advanced cancer. The intervention group received a leucine-rich supplement in combination with a nutrition and physical exercise program. Patients in the control group received standard care. Primary endpoint was physical function measured with the short physical performance battery (SPPB). Secondary endpoints were further physical performance tests, nutritional status, dietary intake, fatigue, quality of life (QoL) and clinical course. All parameters were evaluated at baseline, after three and at six months.
23 women and 29 men with an average age of 63.1 ± 10.3 (range 30-81) years and BMI of 25.4 ± 4.7 kg/m2 were randomized either to the intervention (n = 27) or control (n = 25) group. Patients in the intervention group joined a mean of 28.4 ± 7.4 training sessions (78.8%), 3.2 ± 0.6 nutritional counselling sessions (106.7%) and consumed on average 85.4 ± 33.2 supplements (71.2%).
Inter-group comparison showed no significant difference in the primary endpoint SPPB after three (p = 0.184, 95% CI: -1.43, 0.29) and six months (p = 0.986, 95% CI: -0.87, 0.89). However, the secondary endpoint handgrip strength improved significantly from 35.8 ± 9.8 kg at baseline to 37.6 ± 10.0 kg at three months in the intervention group compared to 35.7 ± 8.8 kg at baseline to 34.0 ± 10.1 kg at three months in the control group (p < 0.001, 95% CI: -6.03, -1.97).
The inter-group difference for changes in the further secondary endpoints nutritional status, dietary intake, fatigue, QoL and clinical course showed a trend towards an improvement in the intervention group, however, the differences were not significant after three and six months.The present trial demonstrated a good adherence to the multimodal therapy as well as a significant improvement of handgrip strength in patients with advanced cancer. In addition, the clinical course data underlined the safety of the program. However, we failed to show significant improvements in further physical performance tests, especially our primary outcome factor SPPB as well as nutritional status, fatigue or QoL.